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== Nouns ==
 
== Nouns ==
   
These are the noun declensions:
+
These are the noun declensions (please do not use any other systems):
   
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
Line 148: Line 148:
 
| colspan="2" | -h₁ou
 
| colspan="2" | -h₁ou
 
| colspan="2" | -su
 
| colspan="2" | -su
  +
|}
  +
  +
In polysyllabic words (type R+S+E), there may be a vowel change:
  +
{| class="wikitable"
  +
! Type !! Case !! R !! S !! E !! Example !! Translation
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! colspan="7" | Polysyllabic nouns
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | acrostatic (or acrodynamic)
  +
| strong
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | ó/ḗ
  +
| Ø
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts|*nókʷ-t-s]]}}
  +
| rowspan="2" | "night"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| Ø
  +
| Ø
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*nékʷ-t-s}}
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | proterokinetic (or proterodynamic)
  +
| strong
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| Ø
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European_*men-#Root_1|*mén-ti-s]]}}
  +
| rowspan="2" | "thought"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| Ø
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| Ø
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*mn̥-téy-s}}
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | hysterokinetic (or hysterodynamic)
  +
| strong
  +
| Ø
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr|*ph₂-tér-s]]}}<ref name="Szemerenyi">Actually, only {{PIE|''*ph₂tḗr''}} and {{PIE|''*dṓm''}} can be reconstructed, but these forms could have developed from the regular ones ({{PIE|''*ph₂térs''}} and {{PIE|''*dóms''}}, respectively) via [[Szemerényi's law]].</ref>
  +
| rowspan="2" | "father"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| Ø
  +
| Ø
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*ph₂-tr-és}}
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | amphikinetic (or amphidynamic)
  +
| strong
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| style="background: #faa;" | o
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *péntoh₂s|*pént-oh₂-s]]}}
  +
| rowspan="2" | "path"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| Ø
  +
| Ø
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*pn̥t-h₂-és}}
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! colspan="7" | Root nouns
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | acrostatic
  +
| strong
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | ó/ḗ ||
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *dṓm|*dóm-s]]}}<ref name="Szemerenyi" />
  +
| rowspan="2" | "house"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é ||
  +
| Ø
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*dém-s}}
  +
|-
  +
| colspan="7" |
  +
|-
  +
! rowspan="2" | amphikinetic(?)
  +
| strong
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é/ḗ ||
  +
| Ø
  +
| nom. sg. {{PIE|[[:wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European *dyḗws|*dyḗw-s]]}}
  +
| rowspan="2" | "heaven, [[Dyeus|god of heaven or day]]"
  +
|-
  +
| weak
  +
| Ø ||
  +
| style="background: #ada;" | é
  +
| gen. sg. {{PIE|*diw-és}}
 
|}
 
|}

Revision as of 09:57, 1 March 2009

Proto-Indo European is the reconstructed language of the Proto-Indo Europeans, previously known as the Aryans.

Despite the fact that there are no fully fluent speakers of the language, if you are familiar with the grammar of one or two of the following languages, you should be able to read and write this Wiki easily if you have a dictionary of PIE:

Languages in bold are considered the closest languages to PIE.

Grammar

Verbs

In the present tense, these are the conjugations for verbs (use either Buck or Beekes):

Buck 1933 Beekes 1995
Athematic Thematic Athematic Thematic
Singular 1st -mi -mi -oH
2nd -si -esi -si -eh₁i
3rd -ti -eti -ti -e
Plural 1st -mos/mes -omos/omes -mes -omom
2nd -te -ete -th₁e -eth₁e
3rd -nti -onti -nti -o

We acknowledge that a third conjugation may have existed, but we shall not use it to help simplify this encyclopædia.

We have beem unable to reconstruct verb moods and tenses in PIE in a reliable way. Therefore, we ask you to acknowledge the following rules:

  • The imperative mood must be wrote in the same way as the infinitive.
  • The subjunctive, opative and indicative moods are the same.
  • Add fa(n)- to the front of a verb to indicate the future.
  • Add pa(n)- to the front of a verb to indicate the past.
  • No aorist tense is used.
  • Adding per and imp after the verb creates the perfective and imperfective moods respectivley.
  • Adding the word con before the verb creates the conditional.

We accept that PIE did not work like this, but it is the best which we can do.

Nouns

These are the noun declensions (please do not use any other systems):

Singular Dual Plural
Animate Neuter Animate Neuter Animate Neuter
Nominative -s, -Ø -m, -Ø -h₁(e) -ih₁ -es -h₂, -Ø
Accusative -m -m, -Ø -ih₁ -ih₁ -ns -h₂, -Ø
Vocative -m, -Ø -h₁(e) -ih₁ -es -h₂, -Ø
Genitive *-(o)s *-h₁e *-om
Dative -(e)i -me -mus
Instrumental -(e)h₁ *-bʰih₁ -bʰi
Ablative -(o)s -ios}} -ios
Locative -i, -Ø -h₁ou -su

In polysyllabic words (type R+S+E), there may be a vowel change:

Type Case R S E Example Translation
Polysyllabic nouns
acrostatic (or acrodynamic) strong ó/ḗ Ø Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE "night"
weak é Ø Ø gen. sg. Template:PIE
proterokinetic (or proterodynamic) strong é Ø Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE "thought"
weak Ø é Ø gen. sg. Template:PIE
hysterokinetic (or hysterodynamic) strong Ø é Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE[1] "father"
weak Ø Ø é gen. sg. Template:PIE
amphikinetic (or amphidynamic) strong é o Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE "path"
weak Ø Ø é gen. sg. Template:PIE
Root nouns
acrostatic strong ó/ḗ Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE[1] "house"
weak é Ø gen. sg. Template:PIE
amphikinetic(?) strong é/ḗ Ø nom. sg. Template:PIE "heaven, god of heaven or day"
weak Ø é gen. sg. Template:PIE
  1. 1.0 1.1 Actually, only Template:PIE and Template:PIE can be reconstructed, but these forms could have developed from the regular ones (Template:PIE and Template:PIE, respectively) via Szemerényi's law.
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